For farmers in India, it’s a constant battle to make ends meet. From issues with access to loans, to a lack of quality education, and even the threat of disease, these farmers face many problems.
In this article, we will be discussing about some of the most common problems faced by farmers in India.
1. Insufficient water supply
The main source of irrigation water for agriculture in India is rainfall. However, the distribution of rainfall is highly variable both spatially and temporally. Consequently, farmers often face water shortages during the dry season when they need it the most.
Drought is a major problem in India and has been responsible for widespread agricultural losses in recent years.
In fact, agriculture is the sector most vulnerable to climate variability and extreme weather events such as floods and droughts. Droughts have serious implications for food security, livelihoods, and economic growth; they are estimated to cause annual losses of about 3% GDP in India.
2. Less use of modern equipment
The primary reason for this challenge is the high cost of equipment and machinery. For small and marginal farmers, who make up the majority of farmers in India, buying new equipment is simply not possible. Even if they could afford it, they would be unlikely to get access to credit or loans to finance the purchase.
Another reason why farmers in India rely less on modern equipment is because they are often unaware of its existence or how it could benefit them. There is very little information available to farmers about new technology and products that could help them improve their productivity and incomes.
This lack of awareness means that many farmers are still using traditional methods, which are often less effective and more labor-intensive.
3. Poor storage facilities
There are a number of reasons why storage facilities in India are not up to the mark. Firstly, lack of awareness among farmers about proper grain storage techniques is a big issue.
Secondly, even if some farmers are aware, they do not have access to good quality storage facilities.
Thirdly, many storage facilities are located far from the farms, making it difficult and expensive for farmers to transport their grains there. Lastly, corruption is also a big problem in India, with many officials demanding bribes for providing good quality storage services.
All these factors together make it very difficult for farmers in India to store their grains properly and protect them from damage or loss.
4. Over-dependence on traditional crops
Over-dependence on traditional crops is one of the major challenges faced by farmers in India. This is because these crops are not well-adapted to the changing climate and often yield less than they used to. As a result, farmers are struggling to make ends meet, and many are forced to take up manual labor or migrate to cities in search of work.
In addition, over-dependence on traditional crops has led to land degradation and water scarcity in many areas. With declining water tables and soil nutrients, it is becoming increasingly difficult for farmers to grow their crops. These problems are compounded by the fact that most farmers lack access to modern technology and inputs, which makes it even harder for them to adopt new practices.
The government has launched several initiatives to address these issues, but more needs to be done.
5. High-interest loans from money lenders
Farmers in India often take out loans from money lenders at high interest rates to finance their operations. This is one of the major challenges faced by farmers in India, as the high interest rates make it difficult for them to repay the loans.
Illegal money lenders often charge exorbitant interest rates on farm loans, which makes it even more difficult for farmers to repay the loans. In some cases, the interest rate can be as high as 30% per year. This results in a huge financial burden on farmers, who are already struggling to make ends meet.
The government has taken some measures to address this issue, such as setting up agricultural credit schemes and providing subsidies on agricultural inputs. However, these measures have not been effective since farmers don’t have the know-how to get those intitutional loans.
6. Scattered or small land holdings
Agricultural land in India is mostly fragmented and scattered. This is one of the major problems faced by farmers in India. There are a number of factors which contribute to this problem.
One of the main reasons for the fragmentation of agricultural land is the system of inheritance. In India, the system of joint family is prevalent and under this system, the property is usually divided among all the members of the family after the death of the head of the family. This leads to a large number of small pieces of land which are not suitable for agriculture.
Another reason for this problem is that most farmers do not have titles or deeds for their land. In many cases, they are unable to produce proof of ownership when required. This makes it difficult for them to sell or lease their land.
7. Lack of high-quality seeds
One of the most significant obstacles they face is a lack of high-quality seeds.
Many Indian farmers cannot afford to purchase new seed each year, so they must rely on saved seed from the previous harvest. However, this seed is often of poor quality and may not be well-suited to the current growing conditions. As a result, harvests are often poor, yielding less food for both farmer and consumer.
In addition to high-quality seeds can be difficult to find in India. They are often in short supply and distributed unevenly throughout the country. This creates an unfair playing field for farmers, as those with access to better seeds are more likely to succeed.
8. Inadequate transport facilities
Farmers often have to rely on manual labor or animal-drawn carts to transport their crops and goods to market, which can be a very time-consuming and difficult process.
Additionally, the lack of good roads and bridges can make it difficult for farmers to get their products to marketplaces, which can lead to them being unable to sell their crops or products at a fair price.
This problem is compounded by the fact that many farms are located in remote rural areas where there is little or no public transportation. As a result, farmers often have to spend a considerable amount of money on private transportation just to get their products to market.